How did China “close”?

The rulers of the Manchu Qing dynasty were frightened by the growing wave of armed uprisings in the middle of the 18th century, which, according to their ideas about the course of Chinese history, could put an end to the dynasty, since its weakening was always accompanied by an increase in the threat from the outside, and internal “unrest” at the end the reign of the doomed dynasty was used by external forces to seize power in the country. Therefore, it was decided to “close” the Middle Empire. Catholic Christianity was completely and finally banned by decree of the emperor, and the number of followers fell sharply. Christian churches were closed, missionaries were driven out of the country. The “closure” itself took place long enough and represented a whole series of imperial decrees prohibiting the construction of large ships (1649). trade with foreigners in copper, zinc, iron (1716, 1733), and even a ban on the export of silk fabrics (1759). Just like export, import was strictly limited (and generally economic relations with neighboring countries), and the import of European books was banned. Trade was limited to the port of Guangzhou,

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