How did the colonization of India by the European powers come about?

Penetration of European colonialists into India The 16th century was the beginning of the penetration of Europeans into India: the Portuguese, the Dutch, the French, the British.
In the XVI century. Portugal opened a sea route to India, captured several bases on the Malabar coast. However, it did not have sufficient forces to advance inland. She exported spices from India in large quantities and was engaged exclusively in trade, completely without interfering in the life of the Indians. The main rival of England, lost its fortresses on the territory of India and conducted only minor trade.
1600 – founded the East India Company, which created trading points in different parts of India – built the city of Calcutta, acquired large land holdings, which were ruled by the Governor-General, built fortresses for their protection and created troops from hired Indian soldiers (sepoys ), armed and trained in a European manner under the command of British officers. – captured Bengal – the beginning of the systematic conquest of the whole country by the troops of the East India Company, its possessions turned into a real colonial empire.

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