How did the evolution of plants and animals take place?

Plant evolution:
• gradual transition to the dominant position of the sporophyte over the gametophyte in the development cycle;
• landfall, differentiation of the body into organs (root, stem, leaf) and differentiation of tissues (conductive, mechanical, integumentary);
• transition from external fertilization to internal;
• the emergence of a flower and double fertilization; the appearance of seeds that contain the smell of nutrients and are protected from the effects of adverse environmental conditions by the seed covers (and by the walls of the pericarp in angiosperms);
• improvement of reproductive organs and cross fertilization in angiosperms in parallel with the evolution of insects; the emergence of various ways of spreading fruits and seeds.

Animal evolution:
• progressive development of multicellularity and, as a consequence, specialization of tissues and all organ systems;
• free lifestyle, which determined the development of various mechanisms of behavior, as well as the relative independence of ontogenesis from fluctuations in environmental factors;
• the emergence of a hard skeleton – external in some invertebrates (arthropods) and internal in chordates;
• progressive development of the nervous system, which became the basis for the emergence of conditioned reflex activity

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