The industrial revolution began in England in the 60s. XVIII century, at the end of the XVIII – the first half of the XIX centuries. she began to be called the “workshop of the world.” Industrial development of the XIX century. characterized by the expansion of machine production, the transfer of technological knowledge, commercial and financial experience from England to other European countries and the United States.
The Industrial Revolution (Industrial Revolution The Great Industrial Revolution) is the transition from manual labor to machine labor, from manufactory to a factory, which was observed in the leading states of the world in the 18th-19th centuries. In the period of the XVII century, England began to overtake the world leader Holland in terms of the growth rate of capitalist manufactories, and later in world trade and the colonial economy. By the middle of the 18th century, England was becoming the leading capitalist country. In terms of economic development, it surpassed the rest of the European countries, having all the necessary prerequisites for entering a new stage of socio-economic development – large-scale machine production,
The industrial revolution was accompanied by the closely related production revolution in agriculture, leading to a radical increase in land productivity and labor in the agricultural sector. Without the second, the first is simply impossible in principle, since it is precisely the production revolution in agriculture that makes it possible to move significant, masses of the population from the agricultural sector to the industrial one. The beginning of the industrial revolution is associated with the invention of an efficient steam engine in Great Britain in the second half of the 17th century. Although such an invention itself would hardly have given anything (the necessary technical solutions were known before), but that one; period English society was prepared to use innovation on a large scale. This was due to the fact that England by that time had moved from a static traditional society to a society with developed market relations and an active entrepreneurial class. In addition, England had sufficient financial resources (since it was a world trade leader and owned colonies), brought up in the traditions of the Protestant work ethic by the population and a liberal political system in which the state did not suppress economic activity.
The main feature of the industrial revolution was industrialization – the transition from a predominantly agrarian economy to industrial production, which resulted in the transformation of the agrarian society into an industrial one. The industrial revolution did not take place in different countries at the same time, but in general it can be considered that the period when these changes took place began from the second half of the XV11 century and continued throughout the XIX century. A characteristic feature of the industrial revolution is the rapid growth of productive forces on the basis of a large machine industry and the adoption of capitalism as the dominant world economic system.
The industrial revolution is associated not only with the beginning of the mass use of machines, but also with a change in the whole structure of society. It was accompanied by a sharp increase in labor productivity, rapid urbanization, the beginning of rapid economic growth (before that, economic growth was usually noticeable only at the scale of centuries) and an increase in the living standard of the population.