How do animals mark the boundaries of their territories?

The border of the territory can be marked with a smell, for which many animals have special odor glands (in deer, felines, etc.). Some animals mark borders with urine (dogs, wolves, foxes, jackals), and others with droppings (antelopes, elephants). Some animals leave shreds of wool on the trees near the border of the site (bears, bison, lynxes). Another way to mark a site is to damage trees and bushes growing on the border of the site (bear marks on the bark of trees, broken branches and gnawing of ungulates, beavers, some monkeys). There is another way of signaling about the busyness of the site – sound (chirping of crickets, roar of large predators, etc.).

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