The Van de Graaff generator consists of a dielectric tape that moves due to the rotation of a roller by an electric motor. The second roller is mounted inside a metal sphere attached to an insulator. In the vicinity of the lower roller, a charge is applied to the tape from a conductor connected to the positive pole of the voltage source, the second pole of which is grounded. Inside the sphere is a conductor connected to it, which touches the tape. The charge from the tape is transmitted along the conductor to the inner surface of the sphere, and from there it goes to the outer. As a result, the potential of the sphere is constantly increasing.
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