How does an ionization chamber work and what types of radiation can it detect?
Ionization chamber is a gas-filled sensor designed to measure the level of ionizing radiation.
The radiation level is measured by measuring the level of gas ionization in the working volume of the chamber, which is located between the two electrodes. A potential difference is created between the electrodes. In the presence of free charges in the gas, a current arises between the electrodes, which is proportional to the rate of occurrence of charges and, accordingly, to the radiation dose rate. A distinctive feature of the ionization chamber, in contrast to other gas-filled sensors, is the relatively low electric field strength in the gas gap, thus the current does not depend on the voltage on the electrodes and is equal to the product of the electron charge by the number of ion pairs.
Ionization chambers can measure not only alpha, beta or gamma radiation, but also neutron radiation.