The differences between short-term and long-term memory are the amount of information stored, the speed and conditions of forgetting, and the time of its storage. The duration of short-term memory is a few seconds. Its capacity is small – 5-7 elements. For example, almost any person can memorize a six-digit or seven-digit telephone number for several minutes, but very few can remember a ten-digit number. Short-term memory is based on the circulation of nerve impulses along neural networks. Short-term memory is very sensitive to strong external influences: electric shocks, shocks, sudden changes in pressure and temperature. Whenever you switch your attention to any other task or problem, the information contained at that moment in short-term memory is completely erased.
Long-term memory stores a gigantic amount of information throughout a person’s life. Everything that is stored in memory for more than 30 s goes into long-term memory. Events that cause a person to have strong positive or negative emotions are especially well remembered. That is why, when preparing for the exam and repeating the material, it is very useful to imagine the situation of the exam and the members of the examination committee. The slight fear that almost any person will experience will help you to remember what you read much easier and better.
Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.