How is the phenomenon of electrification used in modern technology? Describe the mechanism of use with a specific example.

For example when copying text or an image. The principle of the copier can be described as follows:
1. Charging. At this stage, the rotating drum is charged (a negative charge is transferred to it);
2. Flashing. At this stage, the drum passes under the laser beam. The beam “draws” on the drum the image that should have been applied to the paper later. Under the action of the laser, certain parts of the drum lose a negative charge and it turns out that the entire surface of the drum has a negative charge, except for those areas that the laser highlighted (these will be letters or pictures on paper)
3. Application of the goner. Here, the drum is preimaged with toner. It (the toner) is attracted to the drum surface by a magnet and sticks only to those areas of the drum that were previously illuminated by a laser
4. Transfer of toner to paper. The drum continues to rotate with toner already applied to it. It comes into contact with the paper on one side, and on the other side, the paper comes into contact with the transfer roller, which has a positive charge. As a result, toner particles on the drum are transferred onto the paper and produce an image (or text) on the paper.
5. Fixing the toner. Toner just spills onto the paper and needs to be cured at this point. This is done by heating. The toner-laden paper travels further where it passes through 2 contacting rollers. The lower roller presses the paper against the upper one, and the upper one heats it up to 180 degrees. As a result of this heating, the toner melts and literally sticks to the paper.
6. Cleaning the drum. The penultimate stage of the copier, which cleans the drum from the remaining toner on it. Cleaning is performed using a special cleaning blade – it removes the toner and directs it to the waste bin.
7. Erasing the pre-image from the drum. After printing on the drum, the laser pre-image remains and must be erased. At this stage, the charging roller simply covers the drum surface with a negative charge.

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