How is the regulation of the activity of genes of prokaryotic organisms carried out?

The study of the regulation of gene activity in prokaryotes led the French microbiologists F. Jacob and J. Monot to create (1961) an operon model of transcriptional regulation. An operon is a closely related sequence of structural genes that determine the synthesis of a group of proteins that are involved in the same chain of biochemical transformations. For example, it can be genes that determine the synthesis of enzymes involved in the metabolism of a substance or in the synthesis of some component of a cell. The operon model of regulation of gene expression presupposes the presence of a unified system of regulation for such structural genes combined into a single operon having a common promoter and operator.
A feature of prokaryotes is the transcription of mRNA from all structural operon genes in the form of a single polycistronic transcript, from which individual peptides are further synthesized.

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