How is the structure of the sperm and egg related to the functions performed by these cells?

Sperm and egg cells are germ cells, through which hereditary information is transmitted from one generation to another. The fulfillment of this function is due to the presence of a nucleus with a haploid set of chromosomes in both male and female gametes. When the sperm and egg merge, a diploid zygote is formed, from which an organism develops that inherits a unique combination of genes and traits of both parents.
Sperm cells are motile sex cells. In this regard, they have a streamlined shape and a long flagellum (tail), which serves for active movement. The sperm contains a small amount of cytoplasm with a minimal set of organelles. At the front end of the head is an acrosome, which provides dissolution of the membranes of the egg during fertilization. Two centrioles are located in the neck, one of which serves as the center of organization of microtubules forming a movable axial filament of the flagellum. Mitochondria located in the middle part of the sperm generate the energy necessary for the movement of the flagellum.
The eggs are most often immobile. They contain a supply of nutrients necessary for the development of the embryo. Therefore, the eggs are usually much larger than sperm and are covered with several protective membranes.

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