Wind is characterized by speed (force) and direction. The direction is determined by the sides of the horizon from where it blows, and is measured in degrees. Wind speed is measured in meters per second and kilometers per hour. Wind strength is measured in points.
The main quantity characterizing the strength of the wind is its speed. The magnitude of the wind speed is determined by the distance in meters traveled by him for 1 second. Wind speeds observed over short periods of time from a few seconds to 5 minutes are called instantaneous or real. Wind speeds, obtained as arithmetic means of instantaneous speeds, are called average wind speeds. If you add the measured wind speeds during the day and divide by the number of measurements, you get the average daily wind speed. If we add the average daily wind speeds for the whole month and divide this amount by the number of days of the month, we get the average monthly wind speed. Adding the monthly average speeds and dividing the sum by twelve months, we obtain the average annual wind speed.
Beaufort scale is a conditional scale for visual assessment and recording of wind strength (speed) in points. It was originally developed by the English admiral Francis Beaufort in 1806 to determine the strength of the wind by the nature of its manifestation at sea. Since 1874, this classification has been accepted for universal (on land and at sea) use in international synoptic practice. In subsequent years, it was changed and refined. The state of complete calm at sea was taken for zero points. Initially, the system was thirteen-point (0-12 bft, on the Beaufort scale). In 1946 scale increased to seventeen (0-17). The wind strength in the scale is determined by the interaction of wind with various objects. In recent years, wind strength is more often estimated by the speed measured in meters per second – at the earth’s surface, at a height of about 10 m above an open, flat surface.
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