How to make a soft landing of a spacecraft from the orbit of an artificial satellite to Earth? to the moon?

First of all, by a jet impulse in the direction of the ship’s movement, the speed is made less than circular. The satellite’s orbit becomes elliptical with perigee at the orbital point opposite to the momentum. Under Earth conditions, the ship begins to decelerate mainly at perigee in the dense layers of the atmosphere. Having made several revolutions, the speed of the ship is reduced to such an extent that it becomes possible to descend by parachute to the surface of the Earth. At a distance of several meters from the surface, the remnants of radial velocity are extinguished by activating mini-missiles.
When descending to the moon, the possibility of braking in the atmosphere is completely eliminated. All braking is performed using reactive impulses. The last meters of the path the spacecraft lands on a jet of gas from the nozzle.

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