How was tribal and tribal governance different? Why do you think expulsion from the tribe was considered the most severe punishment?

The clan community was governed by one of the clan members – the leader (elder). He was the most experienced and respected relative, who knew well the habits of animals, the properties of plants and the rules of behavior that help to survive in difficult conditions. The elder ensured that food, clothing, and dwellings were distributed fairly.
The tribe was headed by a council of elders. The elders discussed issues of economic life, resolved disputes between people, determined punishments. The most important matters, such as resettlement to new lands, were decided at a joint meeting of adult tribesmen.
Expulsion from the tribe was considered the most cruel punishment, because one person could not live (lack of housing, food) and eventually died either from hunger, cold, or he was killed by animals or another tribe.

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