How were the laws of G. Mendel confirmed. What does the “universal nature of the laws of inheritance of characters” mean?

Morgan’s study of inheritance of parental traits by Drosophila hybrids showed that the number of linked inheritance groups was equal to the number of pairs of homologous chromosomes. On this basis, it was concluded that the strict localization of specific genes in certain pairs of chromosomes.
It was recognized that Mendel’s laws are universal, but they are satisfied if the analyzed genes are in different pairs of homologous chromosomes. In each organism, the number of genes that can independently combine in meiosis is limited by the number of chromosomes. Each chromosome of any kind of organism contains a large number of genes. Therefore, genes located on the same chromosome form a linkage group and are inherited together.

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.