In a calm atmosphere, the position of stars that are not perpendicular to the surface of the Earth at the point where the observer

In a calm atmosphere, the position of stars that are not perpendicular to the surface of the Earth at the point where the observer is located is observed. What is the apparent position of the stars – above or below their actual position relative to the horizon?

1. The observed position of the stars is higher than their actual position.
2. Due to refraction, the ray of light from the star will bend when passing through the atmosphere. As the density of the atmosphere increases as it approaches the Earth’s surface, the angle of refraction will decrease as the beam passes through the atmosphere. Such a curvature of the beam corresponds to the case when the apparent position of the star (obtained by the straight line extension of the ray that came to the eye of the observer) is higher than its actual position.

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