These are organoids of movement. There are simple eukaryotic (ciliates, plasmodium), prokaryotic (bacteria – vibrios), as well as special cells of multicellular eukaryotes – sperm, ciliary epithelium.
Cilia and flagella. These are special motion organelles found in some cells of various organisms. Under a light microscope, these structures look like thin outgrowths of a cell. At the base of the cilia and flagella in the cytoplasm are visible small granules – basal bodies. The length of the cilia is 5-10 microns, and the length of the flagella can reach 150 microns. Cilia and flagella are thin outgrowths of the cytoplasm, covered from the base to the very top with a plasma membrane. Microtubules are located inside the cytoplasm outgrowth in a circle – 9 pairs (doublets). Doublets are linked to each other by protein molecules. In addition to the peripheral doublets of microtubules forming a cylinder, a pair of central microtubules is located in the center of the cilia. At the base of the organelles of movement, in the cytoplasm, are the basal bodies – one in the cilia and two in the flagella. The basal body is very similar in structure to centriole. It also consists of 9 microtubule triplets. Cilia and flagella are structurally connected with the basal body and together form a single whole. Flagella characteristic of a number of protozoa (class Flagellates), zoospores and sperm. Cilia are organoids of the movement of ciliates, free-floating larvae of many marine animals and male gametes of some ferns. They have cilia and ciliated epithelial cells in multicellular animals (up to 500 cilia per cell).
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