In the thallus of many lichens, a dense crustal layer of closely intertwined hyphae is distinguished, the cells of which

In the thallus of many lichens, a dense crustal layer of closely intertwined hyphae is distinguished, the cells of which are often fused with membranes, and a core layer, consisting of loosely intertwined hyphae, with large air-filled gaps, in which the algal cells are located. Consider the benefits of each of these layers for lichen. Why are holes in the crustal layer needed?

Functions of the crustal layer: protection, strengthening, holes in the crustal layer, they are filled with protoplasm (strengthening of lichens).
Functions of the algae zone: the implementation of photosynthesis, the accumulation of organic substances.
Core layer functions: strengthening; air conduction to algae cells.

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