The Arabs learned and developed many of the knowledge and traditions of the peoples they conquered. Arabic became the language of literature and science. Under the Umayyads, Damascus was decorated with luxurious palaces and mosques, the most famous of which was the Mosque of Caliph Walid (the Umayyad Mosque), rebuilt from the Cathedral of St. John. Damascus jewelry and fabrics became world famous. But most of all, Damascus became famous for the steel from which the perfect weapon was made.
Scientists from all over the world gathered at the court of the caliphs. Schools and extensive libraries were founded. In Spain alone, the Arabs founded 14 universities, many schools, 5 libraries.
Thanks to the Arabs, such words as “algebra”, “alcohol”, “azimuth”, “zenith” and others appeared in European languages. In campaigns, military leaders were obliged to draw up detailed maps of the lands they conquered. Descriptions of various lands and peoples were left by many Arab scholars and travelers. The Arabs achieved the greatest success in medicine. In Baghdad, Bukhara, Alexandria, Cordoba in the VIII – IX centuries. medical schools were founded. Among the most famous physicians are Aharoon, who described smallpox, Avicenna, who published the Canon of Medicine – this work for centuries has been the main guide for Arab and European doctors. Many works on medicine were written by Ibn Rushd, or, in the Latin version, Averroes. In mathematics, the Arabs introduced the use of Arabic numerals. Poetry flourished among the Arabs since ancient times. They sang love adventures, military exploits. The Arabian fairy tales “One Thousand and One Nights” became world famous.