In which European countries were there universities by the beginning of the 15th century?

By the beginning of the 15th century, there were universities in Italy, France, England, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Poland, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands.

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.