List methods of asexual reproduction; give examples

Division – prokaryotic organisms (bacteria and blue-green algae) multiply by simple division, which is preceded by a doubling of a single ring DNA molecule.
Spore formation. This method of reproduction is typical mainly for fungi and plants. Specialized cells – spores – can form in special organs – sporangia.
Vegetative propagation – in natural conditions, it usually occurs with the help of specialized parts of the plant body. Tulip bulb, corm of gladiolus, iris growing horizontally underground stalk (rhizome), creeping blackberry stem creeping along the surface of the soil, strawberry whiskers, potato tubers and dahlia root tubers are all organs of vegetative propagation of plants. Vegetative propagation in animals is carried out in two main ways: fragmentation and budding.
Fragmentation is the division of the body into two or more parts, each of which gives rise to a new full-fledged individual. This process is based on the ability to regenerate. Ringworms and flatworms, echinoderms and intestinal can multiply in this way.
Budding is the formation on the body of the maternal individual of a group of cells – the kidney, from which a new individual develops. For some time, the daughter individual develops as part of the mother’s body, and then either separates from it and switches to independent existence (freshwater polyra hydra), or, continuing to grow, forms its own kidneys, forming a colony (coral polyps).

Asexual reproduction methods Features Organism Examples
Division and budding Outgrowths are the kidneys from which new individuals develop Unicellular and multicellular organisms
Spore formation Germination and the formation of new organisms Plants, mushrooms
Vegetative propagation Reproduction by fragments of the body Plants in some animals
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