There is an apical bud at the top of the shoot. With the help of apical buds, the shoots grow in length. Axillary buds are located in the leaf axils. Of these, lateral shoots develop, providing branching. The arrangement of axillary buds follows the arrangement of leaves on the shoot. Buds that do not develop in the leaf axil (on internodes, leaves, roots) are called adventitious. After the leaves fall, leaf scars remain on the shoots, over which the axillary buds are located. After the buds unfold, the shoots grow rapidly, and the bud scales fall off almost immediately. The area of the shoot with leaf scars from fallen renal scales is called the renal ring. By the number of such rings, you can determine the age of a branch or a small tree and shrub.
In trees and shrubs, shoots are not formed from all overwintered buds. Some of the kidneys remain unopened. These are dormant kidneys. Sleeping buds are often larger than normal buds. They can remain alive for many years and slowly grow to the top. If the plants are damaged (felling, pruning, frosting), such buds are able to form shoots. In addition, new shoots from dormant buds can form on old tree trunks and stumps.
The structure of the buds of the plant.
Outside, the kidneys are covered with dense leathery kidney scales that protect them from adverse environmental conditions.
In a magnifying glass on a longitudinal section of the kidney, an embryonic stem is clearly visible, at the top of which there is a growth cone, consisting of cells of educational tissue.
Very small rudimentary leaves are located on the stem. In the axils of these leaves are rudimentary buds; they are so small that they can only be seen with a magnifying glass.
The bud is a rudimentary shoot. Inside some buds, only rudimentary leaves are located on the rudimentary stem. Such buds are called vegetative, or leafy.
Generative, or flower, buds are rudimentary buds or inflorescences, they are larger than vegetative and have a more rounded shape.