Major international conflicts and invasions of Europe in the VIII-XV centuries.

date Event
711 BC Arab invasion of the Iberian Peninsula: the conquest of Spain
IX-XI centuries. Campaigns of the Normans in Europe: the founding of the Rurik dynasty in Russia, the creation of the Norman Duchy in the north of France, the Norman conquest of England (the Battle of Hastings in 1066), the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily
XI-XIII centuries Crusades: campaigns of European knights to the east to recapture the Holy Sepulcher and Jerusalem (captured in 1099)
XIII century Conquest campaigns of the Mongols: the conquest of the Russian principalities (1237-1242), the invasion of Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic
1337-1453 A hundred-year war between England and France over the claims to the French throne of the English royal dynasty of Plantagenets, seeking to reclaim territories on the continent that previously belonged to the English kings. As a result, England lost all its possessions on the continent (except for Calais)
XIV-XV centuries. The onslaught of the Ottoman Turks on Byzantium: the gradual conquest of the Eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans and Byzantium (Constantinople fell in 1453)


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