On the first shelf, there are aluminum and steel bars of the same mass, and on the second, steel and aluminum bars of the same volume. On which shelf are bars with different potential energies?
The potential energy is determined by the expression: Ep = mgh. The bars on the first shelf are at the same height and have the same mass. The bars on the second shelf have the same height but different mass, because the density of the bars with the same volume. Therefore, the bars on the second shelf have different potential energies.
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