Outline the main ideas of the authors of the utopias of the Middle Ages. What ideas about human rights and government

Outline the main ideas of the authors of the utopias of the Middle Ages. What ideas about human rights and government were developed in the writings of the thinkers of the Enlightenment? What contradictions arose in society in the first third of the 19th century? What caused them?

Social utopias express the protest of the masses against dying feudalism and growing capitalism; the point is that both of them brought suffering. In the late Middle Ages (XVI-XVII centuries), changes took place in the economic thought of Europe, associated with the decomposition of feudalism and the development of manufactories. The medieval merchant burst out into the vastness of the ocean and freed himself from all kinds of restrictions. The brutal plunder of the colonies accelerated the accumulation of capital. The agrarian revolution in England in the 16th century created a favorable environment for the development of capitalism, the concentration of capital, the deprivation of the means of production for the bulk of the population, the emergence of manufactures. The period of bourgeois revolutions begins, a class of working rich people appears, who have assumed the functions of government. The 16th-17th centuries became the era of the transition of feudalism to capitalism, and were full of all sorts of contradictory features:
– preservation of feudal estates with their corvee and dues,
– the presence of cities with trade and industrial workshops,
– dependent peasants and free townspeople,
– aristocrats and bourgeois,
– deprived of funds
– existence of former peasants,
– church,
– preservation of royal power and
– the first limited monarchies.

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