Periodization of the history of Ancient Greece

Period Main events and characteristics of the period Key figures
XX-XII centuries to BC Cretan-Mycenaean period Formation of the state in Crete (Crete-Minoan culture) Development of trade and navigation Invention of linear writing Form of power – theocracy Invasion of the Greek Achaeans in the Peloponnese Mastering the potter’s wheel Creation and flourishing of the Mycenaean state (XV-XII centuries), headed by the king, under the leadership which had a developed bureaucratic apparatus. Trojan War (approx. The XIII-XII centuries. To BC) Minos (Legendary King), Knossos Homeric Heroes
XI-IX centuries. BC. “Homeric” ( prepolis ) period or “Dark Ages” Decline associated with the Dorian conquest; states as such are absent, there are self-governing communities of farmers, headed by the “tsar” (basileus) and the nobility (people who are able to provide themselves with a set of weapons); writing is forgotten; mastering the technique of iron smelting  
VIII-VI centuries. BC. Archaic Greece The emergence of policies; separation of handicrafts from agriculture; development of shipbuilding; the appearance of coins; codification of customary law; institute of tyranny; Great Greek colonization; alphabetical writing system; the birth of philosophy; Olympic Games (from 776 BC); partial establishment of a system of measures and weights; the emergence of the institution of ostracism; Lycurgus, Dragon , Solon, Pisistratus Cleisthenes , Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Pythagoras, Anacreon, Aeschylus
V-IV centuries. BC. Classic Greece Greco-Persian Wars (499-449 BC) (in particular, the Battle of Marathon and the Battle of Thermopylae), the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC), Hegemony of Athens, construction of the Parthenon, Hegemony of Sparta, Fortification of Macedonian dynasty, Campaigns of Alexander (336-323 BC) Alcibiades, Darius the Great, Leonidas,  Themistocles ,  Pericles, Lissander , Philip II, Alexander the Great, Aristophanes, Sophocles , Euripides, Aristotle, Plato, Socrates, Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon
End of IV-I centuries BC. Age of Hellenism Death of Alexander the Great and the collapse of the empire (323 BC); Egypt of the Ptolemies, Seleucid Syria, the formation of the phenomenon of synthetic Hellenistic culture; Rome conquers the Hellenistic states  


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