Philosophical ideas of the Enlightenment (philosophers and scientists, their main ideas)

Doer Country Key ideas
John Locke (1632-1704) England 1. Natural, innate human rights to life, freedom and property. All people are naturally equal.

2. The need for separation of powers: separation of the executive from the legislative. 3. Great importance was given to education and upbringing, which develop the human mind. 4. The ideal state system is a constitutional monarchy

Charles Louis de Second , Baron de Montesquieu


France 1. “Freedom is the right to do everything that is permitted by law. If a citizen could do what is prohibited by these laws, then he would not have freedom, since other citizens could do the same . ” 2. Individual freedom is possible only in a society where there is no abuse of power. 3. Division of power into three branches: legislative (belongs to the people), executive (monarch) and judicial (independent judges). 4. The ideal state system is a constitutional monarchy
Voltaire, François Marie Arouet (1694-1778) France 1. Freedom, equality, property – the basis of a just social system. 2. The Church – the main enemy of the Enlightenment, seeks to enslave the human mind, claims a monopoly in the field of morality. 3. Religion is necessary for the people as a deterrent. 4. The ideal ruler is an enlightened monarch
Jean-Jacques Rousseau


France 1. Private property has brought all the disasters to mankind. It has increased inequality and needs to be limited. 2. The source of supreme power is the people; therefore, universal suffrage is necessary. 3. State power protects the freedom of its citizens and protects their interests, if it does not do this, then it loses its right to exist. 4. The ideal state system -e emokraticheskaya Republic
Adam Smith (1723-1790) Scotland 1. The desire of people to improve their material situation can lead society to prosperity. 2. Free exchange of goods and free competition play a major role in the development of the country’s economic life. 3. The land should pass into the hands of owners who are able to use it economically. 4. The main source of wealth is labor


Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.