A flower is a modified shortened shoot that serves for seed reproduction. Like any shoot, a flower develops from a bud. The stem part of the flower is represented by a peduncle, the upper part of which is called a receptacle.
The calyx, corolla, stamens and pistils are modified leaves.
The flower surrounds the perianth outside. The perianth is protective and the petals can attract pollinators.
If the perianth is formed by sepals (cups) and petals (corolla), then this is a double perianth.
If the perianth is formed by more or less the same perianth, then it is called a simple perianth.
Example: tulips have only more or less identical leaves – they have a simple perianth. In some plants, the leaves of a simple perianth are large and bright, for example, in a tulip or an orchid, while in others, for example, in a rush, they are inconspicuous.
Example: Apple flowers have both petals and sepals – they have a double perianth. In addition to the apple flower, the double perianth has flowers of cherry, cabbage, roses and many other plants.
The flowers of some plants do not have a developed perianth. For example, in willow flowers, it resembles scales. Such flowers are called naked.
Tepals of a simple perianth can remain free (simple split-leaved perianth) or grow together (simple split-leaf perianth).
in tulips and lilies, the perianth is simple, split-leaved, and in lily of the valley, it has a syrup.
In flowers with a double perianth, the sepals can also grow together, forming a spliced calyx, and the petals are an spliced corolla.
primrose flowers, for example, have a leafy calyx and a leafy corolla.
In buttercup and cherry, flowers have a separate-leaved calyx and a separate-leaved corolla.
At the bell, the calyx is separate-leaved, and the corolla is spiny.
If the corolla of a flower consists of non-accrete petals, then it is free-petaled.
If the petals grow together in the lower part into a tube, this is a conjoined corolla.
Reproductive parts of the flower: pistil and stamen
In the middle of the flower are the reproductive parts of the flower: pistil (s) and stamens.
The pistil has three parts: ovary, column, stigma.
The stamen consists of an anther and a filament.
Female sex cells are formed in the pistil.
Male reproductive cells (pollen) are formed in the stamen.
Flowers are bisexual and dioecious
Bisexual flowers have both stamens and a pistil. Diocese flowers have either only stamens (stamen, or male, flowers), or only a pistil (pistillate, or female, flowers). When pistillate and staminate flowers develop on the same plant (for example, cucumber and corn), such plants are called monoecious. If pistillate and staminate flowers are located on different plants (for example, willow, poplar, hemp), such plants are called dioecious. The flowers at the top of the stem can be found one at a time or can be collected in an inflorescence.