The huge variety of fruits in plants is due to the development of adaptations to the spread of seeds in the process of their historical development.
According to the number of seeds, the fruits are divided into single-seeded and multi-seeded. Depending on the amount of water in the pericarp, juicy and dry fruits are distinguished. Ripe juicy fruits have juicy pulp in the pericarp. Ripe dry fruits do not have juicy pulp.
Berry fruits – fruits with a juicy pericarp, most often polyspermous.
The berry is a juicy fruit with a pulp covered with a thin skin on the outside.
Example: inside the fruits of currants, cranberries, blueberries, tomatoes, grapes, there are many small seeds. There are also single-seeded berries, for example, in the barberry, date palm.
Apple – in its formation, in addition to the ovary, the lower parts of the stamens, petals, sepals and receptacle take part. The seeds lie in dry chambers.
Example: such fruits are apple, pear, quince.
Pumpkin – the seeds lie in the juicy pulp of the fruit, the outer layer of the pericarp is woody.
Example: such fruits are in pumpkin, watermelon, cucumber.
The orange (or hesperidium) is a berry-shaped citrus fruit.
Example: lemon, orange.
Drupe fruits are fruits with juicy pulp and hard bones.
Drupe is a juicy fruit with a thin skin, pulp and a lignified inner layer of the pericarp – a bone, inside which there is one seed.
Example: drupes are cherry, plum, apricot, bird cherry. In some plants, drupes are polyspermous, for example, in elder, buckthorn.
Polystyanka – numerous juicy drupes are located on a white conical dry receptacle.
Example: such a fruit is in raspberries, bones.
Walnut fruits are single-seeded, non-opening fruits with a dry pericarp.
Walnut is a hard, woody pericarp. The seed lies loose.
Example: such fruits have hazel, hazelnuts. Buckwheat has a nut (small size).
Acorn – the pericarp is less rigid than that of the nut; at the base, the fruit is surrounded by a cupped plyus (protective cover).
Example: an acorn fruit has an oak tree.
Achene is a dry fruit, the pericarp of which is adjacent to a single seed, but does not grow together with it.
Example: such fruits are formed in sunflower.
The caryopsis is a dry fruit in which the membranous pericarp grows together with the seed coat of a single seed.
Example: wheat and corn have such fruits.
Box-shaped fruits are polyspermous, usually opening fruits with a dry pericarp.
A bob is a dry fruit that opens with two leaves. When the bean ripens, its shutters dry out and, rolling, throw out the seeds.
Example: beans, peas, beans, acacia have such fruits.
The pod, like the bean, has two valves, but the seeds in the pod are not located on the valves, as in the bean, but on the fruit septum. Example:
pods are typical for rape, cabbage, radish, turnip, turnip, radish, levkoy.
The boxes differ mainly in the way they are opened. Numerous seeds are poured out through special holes or cracks in the wall of the capsule.
Example: in an iris and a tulip, they open with sashes, in a henbane – with a lid, in a poppy and a bell – with holes. Boxes also develop in flax, cotton, violets, and tobacco.