Political organization of the ancient Eastern states

• The original form of states was NOMA (city-state), which united the lands of several territorial communities, and their administrative, religious and cultural center was the city. Nomes first appeared in Egypt and southern Mesopotamia at the end of the 4th millennium BC.
• Over time, the nomes turned into river basin associations or united under the rule of the most powerful nome, collecting tribute from the weak city-states;
• A characteristic form of the socio-political structure of states in the III – II millennium BC. there was DESPOTIA, in which the ruler had full power and was considered a god or a descendant of gods;
• The ruler relied on the bureaucratic apparatus to govern the country, where there was a clear system of ranks and subordination;
• The state imposed taxes and state duties on the entire working population – public works.

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