Post-war history of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Yugoslavia, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany)

Stages Yugoslavia Poland Hungary Czechoslovakia GDR
The period of people’s democracy 1945-1948 Creation of national fronts and the transfer of power into their hands. 1947-1948 – the establishment of communist parties in power (condemnation of fascism, punishment of war criminals, restoration of parliamentary regimes, adoption of constitutions, universal suffrage, agrarian reform). 1947 – Cancellation of American economic aid under the Marshall Plan
Building the “foundations of socialism” 1948 – late 1950s Building socialism on the model of the USSR (establishing the autocracy of the communist parties, state control of industry and banks, collectivization of agriculture, planned economy)
1948 – Soviet-Yugoslav conflict (Stalin against Tito). 1952 – course towards building self-governing socialism 1956 – spontaneous actions of workers, change of leadership; V. Gomulka came to power 1956 – popular uprising led by I. Nagy (suppressed by Soviet troops)   1953 – mass protests. 1961 – construction of the Berlin Wall
Reforms of “real socialism” in the 1960s. Extension of the principle of “self-government” to the relations of the republics of the federation 1968 – suppression of student demonstrations Second half of the 1960s – reforms developed by R. Njersh and O. Schick  
  1968 – Prague spring
Stagnation 1970s – early 1980s   1970 – a wave of strikes at shipyards. 1980 – creation of the Solidarity trade union (L. Walesa)      
Perestroika – 2nd floor. 1980s Re-attempting reforms to establish “market socialism” Refusal to carry out reforms
  1988 – workers’ strikes    
“Velvet revolutions” 1989-1990 1990 – local elections were held, nationalists won. 1991-2008 – the collapse of the Yugoslav Federation, a military conflict on national grounds 1989 – holding multi-party democratic elections, coming to power of “Solidarity” 1989 – multiparty resolution 1989 – displacement of top management. 1993 – disintegration into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1989 – the fall of the E. Honnecker regime . 1989 – the fall of the Berlin Wall. 1990 – unification of Germany


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