Preconditions of the fascist movement (establishment of totalitarian regimes in Italy, Germany and Spain)
July 29, 2020
|Questions for comparison
|Leader of the fascists
|Party creation year
|Year of government formation
||1922 – coalition 1926 – one-party in Italy, the head of state was King Victor Emmanuel III
||All political parties have been disbanded, and civil and political freedoms have been restricted or eliminated. Rights and freedoms were interpreted as complete devotion to the regime and the Duce (leader).
Gos . apparatus = fascist party.
|Rigid concentration of power, the principle of “Fuhrer”, strengthening of the repressive apparatus
total control over all state structures
banning opposition political parties, control of the press
||– Control over the economy (industries, trade) through corporations. – The operation of the vertical system of corporations in four sectors: industry, agriculture, trade, finance
– Instead of trade unions – workers’ syndicates (unions)
-Monopolization of the banking system
|State regulation (the supreme body for managing the economy – the General Council of the German economy; state military orders; control of production and marketing in agriculture). Laws were passed allowing for the confiscation or limitation of property
Mix of private and public property
Militarization of the economy
Planning (dictate the nomenclature of products, prices for them, the size of wages and the number of employees, the procedure for using profits )
|Corporations regulated social relationships
||Settlement of relations with the Vatican.
1929 – with the announcement were signed between Pius XI and Mussolini, providing for the state sovereignty of the Vatican City
|Any opposition among believers was suppressed
|Great power, revanchism
||– conflict with Yugoslavia on border issues
– registration of the German-Italian union
– 1937 – joining the German-Japanese Anti-Comintern Pact.
– Axis “Berlin-Rome-Tokyo”
1939 – invasion of Albania helping the fascists in Spain
|1933-1935. – the fight for the abolition of all restrictions on the rearmament of the country, recorded in the Treaty of Versailles
1936-1939. – the transition to direct acts of aggression in Europe
1938 – annexation of Austria
1939 – the capture of the Sudetenland and all of Czechoslovakia; aid to the fascists in Spain
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