Preconditions of the fascist movement (establishment of totalitarian regimes in Italy, Germany and Spain)

Questions for comparison  Italy Germany
Leader of the fascists B. Mussolini A. Hitler
Party creation year 1919 1919. Munich.
Year of government formation 1922 – coalition 1926 – one-party in Italy, the head of state was King Victor Emmanuel III 1933
Politic system All political parties have been disbanded, and civil and political freedoms have been restricted or eliminated. Rights and freedoms were interpreted as complete devotion to the regime and the Duce (leader).

Gos . apparatus = fascist party.

Rigid concentration of power, the principle of “Fuhrer”, strengthening of the repressive apparatus

total control over all state structures

banning opposition political parties, control of the press

One-party system

Economy – Control over the economy (industries, trade) through corporations. – The operation of the vertical system of corporations in four sectors: industry, agriculture, trade, finance

– Instead of trade unions – workers’ syndicates (unions)

-Monopolization of the banking system

State regulation (the supreme body for managing the economy – the General Council of the German economy; state military orders; control of production and marketing in agriculture). Laws were passed allowing for the confiscation or limitation of property

Mix of private and public property

Militarization of the economy

Planning (dictate the nomenclature of products, prices for them, the size of wages and the number of employees, the procedure for using profits )

Autarky

Social politics

 

Corporations regulated social relationships Easing unemployment
Church Settlement of relations with the Vatican.

1929 – with the announcement were signed between Pius XI and Mussolini, providing for the state sovereignty of the Vatican City

Any opposition among believers was suppressed
Ideology

 

Great power, revanchism Racism

Revanchism

Anti-semitism

Foreign policy – conflict with Yugoslavia on border issues

935-1936 biennium

– registration of the German-Italian union

– 1937 – joining the German-Japanese Anti-Comintern Pact.

– Axis “Berlin-Rome-Tokyo”

1939 – invasion of Albania helping the fascists in Spain

1933-1935. – the fight for the abolition of all restrictions on the rearmament of the country, recorded in the Treaty of Versailles

1936-1939. – the transition to direct acts of aggression in Europe

1938 – annexation of Austria

1939 – the capture of the Sudetenland and all of Czechoslovakia; aid to the fascists in Spain

 

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