Prove that biological water treatment is a biotechnological process.

For example, wastewater is the most common form of pollution, and a big problem for humanity. Wastewater usually contains a complex mixture of insoluble and soluble components of various nature and concentration. Household waste, as a rule, contains soil and intestinal microflora, including pathogenic microorganisms. Sewage from sugar, starch, beer and yeast factories, meat processing plants contain large amounts of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which are sources of nutrients and energy. Stocks of chemical and metallurgical industries may contain a significant amount of toxic and even explosives. Serious pollution occurs when heavy metal compounds such as iron, copper, tin, etc. are released into the environment. The purpose of wastewater treatment is to remove soluble and insoluble components, eliminate pathogenic microorganisms and conduct detoxification so that the components of the effluents do not harm humans, do not polluted water bodies. Bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas are almost omnivorous. For example, P. putida can utilize naphthalene, toluene, alkanes, camphor, and other compounds. Pure cultures of microorganisms capable of decomposing specific phenolic compounds, oil components in polluted waters, etc., were isolated. Microorganisms of the genus Pseudomonas can also utilize unusual chemical compounds – insecticides, herbicides and other xenobiotics. Genetically engineered strains of microorganisms in the future will be able to solve the problem of treating wastewater and soil contaminated with pesticides and other anthropogenic substances. Pesticides enter the environment after processing crops. Most of them are broken down by bacteria and fungi. Biodegradation of pesticides is best if microorganisms work together in chemical reactions of conjugated metabolism. Moreover, already at the first stage of microbial transformation, the toxicity of most pesticides is lost, which allows the development of relatively simple biotechnological methods to combat them. Primary hydrolysis of pesticides can also be carried out using enzymes such as hydrolases, esterases, phosphoesterases, acylamidases. Pesticides from wastewater can be removed using immobilized forms of these enzymes.

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