Regulation of metabolism
Metabolic processes in the body occur under the action of enzymes and are regulated by the neuro-humoral pathway.
Almost all endocrine glands are involved in the regulation of metabolism:
- the thyroid gland regulates oxidative processes, influencing the growth and development of the body;
- adrenal glands regulate carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism (promote the conversion of proteins into carbohydrates), regulate the exchange of water and salts.
Metabolic dysregulation causes various diseases.
Diseases associated with metabolic disorders
Improper nutrition can lead to metabolic disorders. If the balance between the energy supplied to the body from food and the energy that the body expends is disturbed, then a change in weight can occur. A person loses weight or gains weight, depending on the amount of energy entering the body with food.
The most common metabolic disorder is obesity. Depending on the amount of adipose tissue, obesity is divided into degrees.
Obesity increases the risk of developing diabetes mellitus (a disease associated with impaired carbohydrate metabolism and dysfunction of the pancreas), hypertension and other diseases (metabolic syndrome) associated with being overweight.
Obesity, which affects the internal organs, is especially dangerous. For example, fatty liver (signs of fatty liver may resemble symptoms of liver poisoning).
Dystrophy is a disease associated with insufficient intake of nutrients (especially protein) into the body. When all the reserves of organic matter are used up, the body’s own proteins begin to break down.
Anorexia is a painful desire to lose weight, which, according to some sources, can be considered a manifestation of schizophrenia. Anorexia is more common in girls between the ages of 12 and 30. Patients lose weight so much that the work of all organ systems is disrupted.
Another disease – bulimia – manifests itself in gluttony. During bouts of bulimia, a person may eat a lot of food and then induce vomiting to prevent weight gain. Bulimia can lead to serious complications, from neurasthenia to acute heart failure.
Metabolic disorders in the body can cause salt deposits and the formation of stones in the kidneys and urinary tract.