Reproductive organs. Male and female reproductive system

Man, like all living things, is capable of self-reproduction, that is, of preserving and continuing his species, reproducing his own kind.

Man, like all mammals, is a dioecious creature, and reproduction with the help of germ cells is characteristic of him – sexual reproduction, in which the fusion of male and female germ cells occurs.

When the germ cells (sperm and egg) merge, a fertilized egg is formed – a zygote, as a result of the division of which a multicellular organism is formed. First, it grows and develops in the mother’s body, in a special organ – the uterus.

After the birth of a person, his growth and development continue (until he reaches adulthood).

Human gender

The sex of a person is determined by the genetic, anatomical, physiological and other characteristics of the female and male body.

Usually, the sex of a person can be determined by the structural features of the reproductive organs, which are called primary sexual characteristics.

The reproductive system consists of external and internal reproductive organs.

Male reproductive system

Male genital organs:

  • internal (testes, vas deferens, prostate gland, seminal vesicles);
  • external (penis and scrotum).

Testes (testes) are paired male sex glands, which consist of seminiferous tubules and are located outside the body cavity, in the scrotum (skin-muscle sac). This is due to the fact that normal sperm maturation occurs only at low temperatures (about 35 ° C).

In the testes, male sex cells – sperm cells – develop simultaneously and sex hormones are produced.

Spermatozoa have a microscopic structure and consist of a head, a neck and a flagellum (tail), with which they move, thanks to its wave-like movements.

The resulting sperm from the testis enter the vas deferens and mix with substances produced by the prostate and seminal vesicles to form seminal fluid (sperm). 1 cm³ of semen contains from 60 to 20 million spermatozoa. Outside, sperm is excreted through the urethra, which runs inside the penis.

Female reproductive system

Female genital organs:

  • internal (ovaries, fallopian tubes (oviducts), uterus and vagina);
  • external (large and small labia, clitoris).

The ovaries are paired female sex glands located in the abdominal cavity.

Outside, the ovaries are covered with a white membrane, under which in the connective tissue are graaf’s vesicles (follicles), in which female reproductive cells (eggs) mature.

The fallopian tubes (fallopian tubes, oviducts) open into the uterus.

The uterus is a hollow muscular organ lined with a mucous membrane (endometrium). The lower end of the uterus, the cervix, opens into the vagina. Its entrance is located between the skin folds – the labia. In girls, it is closed by a membrane of connective tissue – the hymen.

Near the entrance to the vagina is the opening of the urethra (refers to the urinary system of organs).

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.