Results and consequences of the first world war

1. Political results:
– the February and October revolutions in Russia and the November revolution in Germany;
– the elimination of four empires: the German, Russian, Ottoman empires and Austria-Hungary, and the latter two were divided;
– Germany is cut territorially and economically weakened.

2. Territorial changes:
– the accession to England of Tanzania and South-West Africa, Iraq and Palestine, parts of Togo and Cameroon;
– accession to Belgium by Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda;
– the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, Syria, parts of Togo and Cameroon by France;
– the occupation of the Saar by France;
– the annexation of South Tyrol and Istria by Italy;
– the independence of the Belarusian People’s Republic, the Ukrainian People’s Republic, Hungary, Danzig, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Finland and Yugoslavia was proclaimed;
– the Weimar and Austrian republics were founded;
– the Rhineland and the Black Sea straits have been demilitarized.

3. Military results:
– For the first time, tanks, chemical weapons, gas masks, anti-aircraft and anti-tank guns were used;
– aircraft, machine guns, mortars, submarines, torpedo boats are widely used;
– the firepower of the troops increased sharply;
– new types of artillery appeared: anti-aircraft, anti-tank, infantry escort;
– aviation became an independent branch of the military, which began to be subdivided into reconnaissance, fighter and bomber;
– there were tank troops, chemical troops, air defense troops, naval aviation;
– the role of engineering troops has increased and the role of cavalry has decreased;
– appeared “trench tactics” of waging war with the aim of exhausting the enemy and depleting his economy, working on military orders.

4. Economic results:
– strengthening of state regulation and planning of the economy, the formation of military-industrial complexes;
– accelerating the development of nationwide economic infrastructures (power systems, paved road network, etc.);
– an increase in the share of production of defense products and dual-use products.

1. According to official data, the USSR lost about 26.5 million people (Germany – about 13 million).
Military losses: from 8.6 to 12 million people (the ratio of losses of the Red Army and the Wehrmacht is estimated in the range from 2: 1 to 4: 1.
2. 1710 cities and 70 thousand settlements were destroyed.
Material damage to the USSR is estimated at about 2 trillion. 600 billion rubles (up to 2/3 of the national wealth of the USSR in the occupied territories).
3. The incorporation of new territories into the USSR (part of East Prussia – now the Kaliningrad Region; the southern part of the Sakhalin Peninsula and the Kuril Islands).
4. Strengthening the totalitarian political regime in the USSR (a course towards the continuation of the pre-war model of political development). Hopes for the liberalization of the political regime did not come true.
5. Strengthening the influence of the USSR in the international arena through the spread of Soviet influence in many liberated countries (creation of a socialist bloc of countries)
6. The beginning of the cold war

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