Roots and their description

Roots are unicellular organisms that move with the help of pseudopods (pseudopodia). Basically, rhizomes live in the same environment. They feed on algae, bacteria and other protozoa. They reproduce mainly asexually.

Amoeba proteus
lives in fresh water. The amoeba does not have a constant body shape, its cell forms outgrowths – pseudopodia – due to the movement of the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm consists of 2 layers: external (ectoplasm) and internal (endoplasm). The cell has one nucleus, digestive vacuoles, contractile vacuole, and other organelles. The amoeba reproduces by dividing in two (see the previous section).
The amoeba feeds on phagocytosis.
Phagocytosis is a process during which the pseudopodia of the cell envelop a solid food particle, after which it is absorbed and digested using the digestive vacuole.
1 – the nucleus of a unicellular organism;
2 – vacuole;
3 – bacteria;
4 – absorbed bacteria

Dysentery amoeba
parasitizes in the human intestine and causes a disease – amoebic dysentery. The disease is rare. Basically, the amoeba lives in the intestines and feeds on bacteria there. But sometimes it injures the intestinal wall, forming ulcers, enters the bloodstream and begins to feed on blood cells, causing dysentery. At a certain stage of parasitization, it enters the rectum, where it forms a cyst (encystised) and exits the environment along with feces. Spread by flies and may come into contact with food.
1 – the form in the intestine;
2 – encysted

Foraminifera (shell amoeba)
live exclusively in salt water. They concentrate calcium in their bodies, from which they form shells.
The shell performs a protective function, its walls are permeated with the smallest pores through which pseudopodia go out. Inside the shells are cytoplasmic organelles and one nucleus. When foraminifera reproduce, sexual and asexual generations alternate. The adult foraminifera is a sexless generation. It gives the sex generation, which gives life to the asexual generation. Ancient foraminifera took part in the formation of the chalk mountains.

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