Scots pine: structure and reproduction

Scots pine is a plant, a widespread species of the Pine genus of the Pine family (Pinaceae). It grows naturally in Europe and Asia.

Pine trees are light-requiring and do not tolerate shading. In dry pine forests (pine forests) it is always light. The pine is unpretentious. It has a strong root system with strong lateral roots and is able to root and grow on sand dunes and slopes, in swamps and even on bare rocks.

A pine leaf is a needle. The needles are arranged in two together on short shoots. The needles of the tree change gradually. Needles live for 2 – 3 years, and then fall off along with a short shoot. A small amount of water evaporates through the small surface of the needles, so pines are drought-resistant plants.

In the spring, two types of cones are formed on the upper branches of the pine. Male cones grow in tight clusters at the bottom of new shoots. Female cones are formed at the tops of the branches, they are solitary and have a reddish color. Female cones grow and woody. First they turn green, then brown.

Pollen develops in the male cones. Each particle of pollen has two air bubbles that help it stay in the air. When the pollen is ripe, it is carried by the wind to the female cones. Among the scales of female cones are ovules. When the pollen hits the ovule, pollination occurs. The female cones change color – turn green and go down.

Fertilization occurs next spring, and seeds begin to grow among the scales of the cone. The seeds ripen and are stored in cones until next spring. Only in the third year do the seeds spill out. Each seed has a wing so that the wind can carry it as far as possible. Once in favorable conditions, the seeds germinate.

Under favorable conditions, pines reach 30 – 40 m in height and live up to 350 – 400 years. Pine wood is used to make furniture, paper and plywood. Pine resin is used to obtain medicines and perfumery products.

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