Stages of the European Middle Ages (comparative table)

Stage State development Feudal relations Population migration The role of the church Cultural achievements
Early (late 5th – mid 11th century) Barbarian kingdoms, formation of the first empire (Charlemagne) Formation of feudalism, folding of the feudal social structure The final stage of the Great Migration of Peoples (VI-VII centuries), the expansion of the Normans to Europe The most important role in the formation of a feudal society, the creation of forms of storage and transmission of culture, the spread of education The decline of culture in the early Middle Ages, “Carolingian Renaissance”, the birth of Romanesque art
Mature (mid-11th – 13th century) Feudal fragmentation, the emergence of the estate-representative monarchy The flourishing of feudal relations, vassal-fief system Crusades to the East and Eastern Europe The struggle between the papacy and secular power for supremacy, the domination of the church in all spheres of society The flowering of Romanesque and Gothic art, the emergence of universities
Later (XIV-XV centuries) Creation of centralized states in the form of estate-representative monarchy The beginning of the process of decomposition of feudal relations (large antifeudal uprisings), the initial folding of the market, the growth of cities, the emergence of a new class – the burghers Strengthening contacts between the peoples of Europe, the development of trade and interstate relations, the beginning of the great geographical discoveries Strengthening anti-church sentiments Flourishing of Gothic art, early Renaissance


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