Table Artistic detail in a literary work (functions and examples)

Part functions a brief description of An example from thin. works
Excretory With the help of a detail, the writer distinguishes an event, an artistic image, a phenomenon from a number of similar “And Belikov also tried to hide his thought in a case. For him, only circulars and newspaper articles were clear in which anything was forbidden …” (A. P. Chekhov, “A Man in a Case”)
Psychological The detail is a means of psychological characterization of the hero, helps to reveal the inner world of the character “… Have you ever seen eyes, as if sprinkled with ashes, filled with such inescapable mortal longing that it is difficult to look in them? These are the eyes of my casual interlocutor ..” (MA Sholokhov “The Fate of a Man” 
Factographic The detail characterizes this fact of reality “School photography is still alive. It turned yellow, broke off in the corners. But I recognize all the guys on it. Many of them were killed in the war. The famous name Siberian is known to the whole world …” (V.P. Astafiev “A photograph in which I’m not here “)
Naturalistic A detail outwardly accurately, dispassionately, objectively depicts an object or phenomenon “When the procession passed the place where I was standing, I caught a glimpse of the back of the punished between the rows. It was something so motley, wet, red, unnatural that I did not believe that it was a human body …” (L. N . Tolstoy “After the ball”)
Symbolic The detail acts as a symbol – an independent polysemantic artistic image, which has an emotional and allegorical meaning based on the similarity of the phenomena of life “I often recall now this dark river, shaded by rocky mountains, and this living light. Many lights, both before and after, attracted more than one me with their proximity. But life still flows on the same gloomy banks, and the lights are still far away. And again we have to lean on the oars … But still … all the same, there are lights ahead! .. “(V. G. Korolenko” Lights “)
Impressionist A detail taken by the writer arbitrarily and not always clear to himself, but internally coinciding with his thought, reflecting his feelings, experiences, mood White swan, pure swan, 
Your dreams are always silent, Serenely
You slide, giving birth to waves, 
Under you is a mute depth, 
Without greetings, without an answer,
But you slide, drowning,
In the abyss of air and light. 
(KD Balmont “White Swan”)
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