Table of satirical techniques in a work of fiction (classification)

Name of the satirical technique a brief description of Example
Hyperbola An artistic device, a means of expressiveness of speech, sharpening and exaggerating the properties of real phenomena “They didn’t even know any words, except:“ Accept the assurance of my complete respect and devotion. ”(M. E. S-Shch“ The Tale of How One Man Fed Two Generals ”)
Grotesque A type of satirical typification about which real life relationships are destroyed; reality recedes before fiction, there is a contrasting combination of real and fantastic “Only suddenly we found ourselves on a desert island, woke up and saw: both were lying under the same blanket, of course, at first they did not understand anything and began to talk as if nothing had happened to them.” (M. E. S-Shch “The story of how one man fed two generals”)
Fiction A means of satirical coverage of reality; a form of displaying the world in which, on the basis of real ideas, a picture of life that is logically incompatible with them is created D. Swift “Gulliver’s Journey”
Aesopian language A type of censored allegory, intentionally disguising the author’s idea Fairy tales of M.E.Saltykov-Shchedrin
Irony Subtle, hidden mockery “Where, clever (referring to a donkey), are you raving head?” I. A. Krylov
Sarcasm A stinging mockery, exposing a negative social phenomenon with the utmost harshness, a negative character trait “The wolf took pity on the mare, left his tail and mane.” Proverb. The ending of “Nevsky Prospect” N. V. Gogol
Allegory Allegory, with the help of which an abstract concept is transmitted through a specific image The fox in Russian folk tales is an allegory of cunning, dexterity; wolf – an allegory of anger, cruelty; fables by I.A.Krylov, Lafontaine, Aesop


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