Table The role of landscape in a work of art (functions and examples)

Landscape functions An example from a work of art
Illustrative (creates a background against which various events in the work take place) “It happened in the fall. Gray clouds covered the sky: a cold wind blew from the reaped fields, carrying red and yellow leaves from the oncoming trees. I arrived in the village at sunset and stopped at the post house. In the canopy (where poor Dunya once kissed me) I went out a fat woman, and to my questions she answered that the old superintendent had died a year ago, that a brewer had settled in his house, and that she was the wife of a brewer. (A. Pushkin, “The Station Superintendent”)
Psychological (conveys the inner state of the characters, their experiences) “Looking around, listening, remembering, I suddenly felt a secret uneasiness in my heart … I raised my eyes to the sky – but there was no peace in the sky either: speckled with stars, it kept moving, moving, shuddering; I bowed to the river … but and there, and in this dark, cold depth, the stars also swayed, trembled; anxious revival seemed to me everywhere – and anxiety grew in me. ” (I. S. Turgenev “Asya”)
Lyric (creates a certain mood for the hero; sets the general tone of the story) “Below, fat, dense green, flowering meadows are spread, and behind them, on yellow sands, a bright river flows, agitated by the light oars of fishing boats or rustling under the steering wheel of heavy plows that float from the most fertile countries of the Russian Empire and endow greedy Moscow with bread. on the other side of the river, an oak grove is visible, near which numerous herds graze; there young shepherds, sitting under the shade of trees, sing simple, depressing songs … On the left side, vast fields covered with bread, woods, three or four villages, and in the distance a high the village of Kolomenskoye with its high palace. I often come to this place and almost always meet spring there; I also come there and grieve along with nature on gloomy days of autumn. ” N. M. Karamzin “Poor Liza”
Symbolic (acts as an image-symbol) In the evenings above the restaurants The
hot air is wild and deaf, 
And the drunken shouts reigns The
spring and malignant spirit …
And every evening, behind the barriers,
Breaking the bowlers,
Among the ditches , the tried and  true witches walk with the ladies

Above the lake oarlocks creak, 
And a woman’s screech is heard, 
And in the sky, accustomed to everything,
A disc bends senselessly. 
(A. A. Blok “Stranger”)
Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.