Table Types of rhymes (characteristics and examples)

Trail name a brief description of Example
Epithet A figurative definition that gives an additional artistic characteristic of an object or phenomenon in the form of comparison Below us, with a roar of cast-iron
Bridges, instant thunder. (A. A. Fet)
Permanent epithet One of the tropes of folk poetry: a word-definition, consistently combined with one or another defined word and denoting some characteristic, always present generic sign Leaves the village yes a good fellow,
Old Cossack and Ilya Muromets … (Epic “Three trips of Ilya Muromets”)
Simple comparison A simple type of trail, which is a direct comparison of one object or phenomenon with another for some reason The road, like a snake’s tail,
Full of people, moves … (A.S. Pushkin)
Metaphor Type of trail, transfer of the name of one object to another based on their similarity I don’t regret, I don’t call, I cry, 
Everything will pass like smoke from white apple trees.
Fading gold covered, 
I will no longer be young. (S. A. Yesenin)
Impersonation A special type of metaphor, transferring the image of human features to inanimate objects or phenomena The grass crumbles with pity, and the tree with grief bowed to the ground. (“A Word about Igor’s Regiment”)
Hyperbola A type of path based on the exaggeration of the properties of an object, a phenomenon in order to enhance the expressiveness and imagery of artistic speech And half-asleep hands are too lazy To 
turn around on the dial, 
And the day lasts more than a century 
And the hug does not end. (B.L. Pasternak)
Litotes A figurative expression that contains an artistic understatement of the properties of an object in order to enhance the emotional impact Only in the world is there that shady 
tent of Dormant maples (A.A. Fet)
Metonymy View of the path, transfer of the name from one object to another, adjacent (close) to it; artistic identification of objects, concepts, phenomena according to the principle of contiguity God forbid me to go crazy.
No, the staff and the bag are lighter; 
No, labor and smoothness are easier. (A.S. Pushkin)
Synecdoche A kind of metonymy, the replacement of a word or concept with another that is in a “less – more” relationship with it; “part – whole” (quantitative metonymy) The lonely sail glows white
In the fog of the blue sea! .. 
What is he looking for in a distant country? 
What did he throw in his native land? .. (M. Yu. Lermontov)
Oxymoron A kind of trail, a combination of incongruous, opposite words in meaning I was sitting by the window in a crowded room. Somewhere bows sang about love.
I sent you a black rose in a glass of
Golden, like the sky, ay. (A. A. Blok)
Periphrase Type of path, replacement of the name of an object or phenomenon with a description of its signs And after him, like a storm noise,
Another genius rushed away from us, 
Another ruler of our thoughts. 
Disappeared, mourned by freedom, 
Leaving the world with his crown.
Shumi, get excited by the bad weather: 
He was, about the sea, your singer. (A.S. Pushkin)
Irony The kind of artistic path, the use of a word or expression in the opposite sense to what is actually implied, for the purpose of ridicule “Did you all sing? This is the case: 
So go and dance!” (I.A.Krylov)
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