P-type semiconductor – a semiconductor in which the main
charge carriers are holes. P-type semiconductors are obtained by doping their own semiconductors with acceptors.
For semiconductors of the fourth group of the periodic table, for example, such as silicon and germanium, the acceptors can be impurities of chemical elements of group III of the periodic table of elements D.I., Mendeleev boron, aluminum indium, gallium, and donor – groups V-phosphorus, arsenic.
For semiconductor compounds of the A3B5 type, for example, gallium arsenide, the donor impurities are the elements of group VI – selenium, tellurium, and the acceptor impurities – of group II – zinc, cadmium, mercury.
A small number of atoms of a trivalent element (for example, indium) are added to a tetravalent semiconductor (for example, silicon). Each impurity atom forms a covalent bond with three neighboring silicon atoms. To establish a bond with the fourth silicon atom, the indium atom does not have a valence electron, so it captures a valence electron from the covalent bond between neighboring silicon atoms and becomes a negatively charged ion, as a result of which a hole is formed. The impurities that are added in this case are called acceptor impurities.
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