Tell us about the foreign policy of England and formulate your opinion on its character in the first half of the 19th century.

England’s foreign policy was colonial in nature. By the middle of the XIX century. it became a huge colonial empire, the most important part of which was India with a population of 300 million.
In 1838-1842. Great Britain fought a war in Afghanistan, but the attempt to conquer this country ended in failure. At the same time, she managed to establish her control over the shortest sea route from Europe to India – through the Mediterranean, Red and Arabian Seas.
In the 40-50s. Great Britain is waging the “Opium Wars” 2 with China. The first war was fought in 1840-1842. Defeated, China was forced to open five ports for British trade and settlement. The second war was fought in 1856-1860. (jointly with France). The result is the right to open diplomatic missions in China, freely trade in the Yangtze River basin and import opium. In 1852-1853. Great Britain seized South Burma, then extended its power to all of Malaya. In the 60s. colonial conquests also took place in West Africa.
In the 1850-1860s. continued colonization of Australia and New Zealand, development of Canada. Here, the colonialists mercilessly exterminated the indigenous population, resettling them to unsuitable lands, where few survived. Canada and Australia are examples of white-dominated resettlement colonies. Immigrants from England and Ireland developed new lands and became buyers of English manufactured goods, contributed to the development of elements of an industrial society.
At the beginning of the XIX century. The process of modernization in Great Britain took place in an atmosphere of acute social conflicts, but the ruling circles increasingly turned to political and social reforms as a method of resolving contradictions.

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