Features of lichens that help them colonize bare rocks:
* lichens secrete special acids and dissolve stones by feeding on their salts.
* the fungus inside its body creates a special habitat in which the alga is protected from external influences and provided with liquid and oxygen. The fungus consumes water from the substrate, absorbs oxygen, so the alga inside it gets nourishment and feels comfortable. For their existence, no special soil is required; they grow wherever there is air and water, even in minimal quantities.
* while the fungus is engaged in the absorption of water with minerals, the alga simultaneously produces organic substances (sugars) from water and carbon dioxide in the process of photosynthesis.
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