The development of the ancient civilization of Greece and Rome (economic, political, spiritual and cultural sphere)

Economic sphere 1. The emergence and strengthening of private ownership of land, other instruments and means of production as the basis of personal freedom of people.

2. Developed commodity-money, market relations between people, regulated mainly by civil (civil) law

Political sphere 1. For the first time, the foundations of democracy, the republican form of government, the principles of organizing collective power are laid.

2. Power is also exercised in the form of a monarchy, oligarchy, and personal dictatorship.

3. The foundations are laid for the separation of legislative, executive and judicial powers. A significant part of the officials with power functions are elected by the population, citizens.

4. The military organization is based on the principle of universal military service. The fulfillment of military duty is a civic valor.

5. Political parties, inter-party power struggles, and other elements of civil society appear.

6. The foundations of the rule of law, the judicial system with the involvement of citizens are laid (jury)

Spiritual and cultural sphere 1. Ancient mythology, pagan religion reflects people’s ideas about higher powers, the belief that one can negotiate with them and even fight.

2. Artistic culture is addressed to a person, shows his physical and spiritual perfection, great opportunities.

3. The public consciousness is characterized by the spirit of competition, creativity, the desire to change life for the better, to challenge fate


Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.