The largest cities in Italy in the 13th century supported the struggle of the pope against the emperor. Why didn’t the popes manage to unite Italy then?
The Pope was needed by the townspeople of Northern Italy as a counterweight to the emperor. The townspeople did not want papal autocracy either – they wanted the independence of each city and that the pope was an arbiter in intercity disputes. In addition, the dads changed frequently, they were of different nationalities; their policy could not be consistently “Italian”.
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