The most important directions for the development of biotechnology in crop production

Traditional production of new varieties by selection using hybridization, induced and spontaneous mutations. Breeding methods based on cellular and genetic engineering are already beginning to be introduced. For example, with the help of genetic engineering, it is supposed to deduce symbiotic associations for plants, allowing them to fix nitrogen. Scientists have already managed to isolate and clone sym genes that are responsible for the formation of symbiotic bonds between the host plant and the nodule nitrogen fixer. That is, thanks to the methods of genetic engineering, it is possible to teach plants to saturate the soil with nitrogen.

  • There is another interesting task – to transform plant protoplasts with the help of DNA.
  • Techniques are being developed for the interspecific transfer of asm genes that make plants resistant to drought, cold, heat, and soil salinity.
  • Work is underway to correct the cfx genes that regulate the absorption of carbon dioxide by the plant, the purpose of which is to increase the efficiency of biological conversion of light radiation.
  • Breeding plants that are resistant to herbicides will allow them to be used for weed control right in the fields where cultivated plants grow. But the problem here is that an overdose of herbicides has a detrimental effect on the entire ecosystem.
  • There are a number of plants that are severely affected by nematodes. It is proposed to introduce genes into them that will make plant root cells reproduce nematicides. But the latter should not be toxic to the beneficial root microflora.
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