Solar energy on Earth causes two cycles of matter: large, or geological, which is most clearly manifested in the water cycle and atmospheric circulation, and small, biological, which develops on the basis of a large one and consists in the redistribution of matter within ecological systems of various levels of organization. Both cycles are mutually connected and represent, as it were, a single process.
Great geological circulation.
The large, or geological, cycle is most clearly manifested in the water cycle and atmospheric circulation.
Small biological cycle
Small biological cycle is the circulation of substances between soil, plants, animals and microorganisms.
The biological cycle is the entry of chemical elements from the soil, water and atmosphere into living organisms, the transformation of the incoming elements into new complex compounds and their return back in the process of life.
Let’s imagine a biological (biotic) cycle in a cyclic form.
Multicellular plants – the highest producers – create organic matter in the process of photosynthesis, using the energy of solar radiation. In the future, the primary consumers – herbivorous animals, and then consumers of various orders are connected to the circulation. All organisms occupy a certain place in the biotic cycle and perform their functions in transforming the branches of the energy flow that reach them and in transferring biomass. All are united, depersonalizes their substances and the system of unicellular reducers (destructors) closes the common circle. They return to the abiotic environment of the biosphere all the elements necessary for new and new turns.
We have considered the biotic circulation of the land. This fully applies to the biotic cycle of aquatic ecosystems, such as the ocean.
Next, we will consider the biogeochemical cycles (cycles) in the biosphere of certain substances.